Friday, February 21, 2020

Nursing Care Plan for Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. It typically causes a number of symptoms including an itchy rash, throat swelling, and low blood pressure. Common causes include insect bites and stings, foods, and medications.

On a mechanistic level, anaphylaxis is caused by the release of mediators from certain types of white blood cells triggered by either immunologic or non-immunologic mechanisms. It is diagnosed on the basis of the presenting symptoms and signs. The primary treatment is injection of epinephrine, the administration of intravenous fluids, and positioning the person flat, with other measures being complementary.

Anaphylaxis typically presents many different symptoms over minutes or hours with an average onset of 5 to 30 minutes if exposure is intravenous and 2 hours for foods. The most common areas affected include: skin (80–90%), respiratory (70%), gastrointestinal (30–45%), heart and vasculature (10–45%), and central nervous system (10–15%)[5] with usually two or more being involved.

Nursing Diagnosis for Anaphylaxis

1. Impaired gas exchange related to ventilation perfusion imbalance.
characterized by: shortness of breath, tachycardia, flushing, hypotension, shock, and bronchospasm.

2. Altered tissue perfusion related to decreased blood flow secondary to vascular disorders due to anaphylactic reactions.
characterized by: palpitations, skin pale, cold acral, hypotension, angioedema, arrhythmias, ECG features horizontal and inverted T waves.

3. Ineffective breathing pattern related to the swelling of the nasal mucosa wall
characterized by: shortness of breath, breath with the lips, there rhinitis.

4. Acute pain related to gastric irritation
characterized by: abdominal pain, looked grimacing while holding stomach.

5. Impaired skin integrity related to changes in circulation
characterized by: swelling and itching of the skin and the nose, there are hives, urticaria, and runny nose.

Read More :


Nursing Diagnosis and Nursing Interventions for Appendicitis

Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute inflammation in the lower right quadrant of the abdominal cavity, the most common causes of emergency abdominal surgery (Smeltzer, 2001).

Appendicitis is a condition in which infection occurs in the appendix. In mild cases may recover without treatment, but many cases require laparotomy with removal of the infected appendix. If untreated, the mortality rate is quite high, due to peritonitis and shock when an infected appendix destroyed. (Anonymous, Appendicitis, 2007)

Nursing Diagnosis for Appendicitis

  1. Ineffective Breathing Pattern related to the act of anesthetics.
  2. Acute Pain related to the surgical incision.
  3. Risk for Fluid Volume Deficit associated with vomiting.
  4. Imbalanced Nutrition: Less than Body Requirements related to anorexia.
  5. Risk of Infection related to surgical incision.

Nursing Diagnosis for Appendicitis

Risk for infection related to an inadequate primary defenses, perforation, peritonitis secondary to inflammatory processes.

Nursing Interventions for Appendicitis

  • Assess and record the quality, location and duration of pain. Beware of the pain becomes severe.
  • Monitor and record vital signs of the increase in temperature, pulse, breathing fast and shallow existence.
  • Assess the abdomen against the rigidity and distention, decreased bowel sounds.
  • Perform wound care with aseptic technique.
  • See incision and bandage. Record the drainage characteristics of the wound / drain, erythema.
  • Collaboration: antibiotics

Nursing Diagnosis for Appendicitis

Acute Pain related to distention of intestinal tissue by inflammation, a surgical incision

Nursing Interventions for Appendicitis

  • Assess pain. Record the location, characteristics of pain.
  • Keep the rest in semi-Fowler position.
  • Suggest to early ambulation.
  • Teach diaphragmatic breathing techniques to slow to help release muscle tension.
  • Avoid pressure popliteal area.
  • Give antiemetic, analgesic according to the program.

Source :

Popular Posts

Friday, March 22, 2019

Urinary Tract Infection Natural Remedies

If you have caught a urinary tract infection, it is likely that you are looking for some beneficial remedies to solve your problem. There are many treatments available in today's world, but some are proven to be much more effective than others. Most people do not want to take antibiotics, as they usually have side effects, which can annoy individuals, and make them drowsy. So in these cases, people search for alternatives, and there is a great deal of alternatives available. It can become quite overwhelming, but with a wide selection of urinary tract infection natural remedies available, you will have a likelier chance of finding one that works for you.

In this article, you will gain some useful advice, tips and some natural remedies to take away with you, but so not stop searching and trying different methods, as some will work better for you than others. But, what's important is you give each method enough time, to allow it to get to work, this way you will be able to see if it's useful to you or not, everything has to be given time to work.

Baking soda is said to be a good natural remedy to ease UTI infections. Use a mixture of half tsp of baking soda in an eight ounce cup of water. This will raise the acid base balance in your urine, making the acidic urine settle.

Drinking plenty of fluids or water is said to flush out the Urinary tract infection. The fluids dilute the acids and cleanse your body, which will get rid of the damaging substances in your body. Also, drinking vegetable or fruit juices is said to work well, as the vitamins, minerals and nutritional values in the juices, help fight against the infection.

One fruit juice which is the most effective from studies is cranberry juice. Cranberry juice cuts of bacteria from cells, and then lines the urinary tract. If you are one of many who dislike the taste of cranberry juice, you can mix it with apple juice or another juice, so that you can bear the flavour more.

It is also said that fresh cranberry juice is more effective than cartoned or bottled cranberry juice. But, this isn't always easily accessible to people, so drinking cartoned or bottled cranberry juice will have to try and choose one which has a low amount of added sugars and additives. These bad substances can exacerbate the condition, so you should look to avoid these in everything you eat and drink when suffering with a UTI. This is by far the most used and most commonly known Urinary Tract Infection Natural Remedy.

By using sandalwood, tea tree, frankincense, juniper and bergamot, you can create an essential oil. Then, mix all these specimens together, and see the oil produces itself, apply this to your bladder area. Repeat this treatment and massaging for three to four days, and allow the symptoms to disappear. This is known to be one of the easiest home remedies to make, and is actually used to prevent a UTI from occurring in some cases.

Source :